Papers & Articles

Pressure Safety Valves for Heat Exchanger Tube Rupture High Pressure Protection
Glyn Addicott, Operations Director

A Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger Overpressure Protection Joint Industry Project (STHE JIP) was undertaken and managed by the Energy Institute (EI). HAL were involved with the dynamic simulation section of the JIP on the Steering Committee. The key deliverable of the STHE JIP was to look at alternatives to burst discs for heat exchanger high pressure protection. The work undertaken by HAL considered the use of spring relief and pin valves for high pressure protection and the published guidelines cover this new development. The modelling included calibrating the response and capacity of different relief devices by interpreting the performance testing which was undertaken by the University of Sheffield.
We modelled the impact of fast transient tube ruptures on various STHE design geometries, and assessed the impact of the pressure wave in the adjoining pipework. This ensured consideration for overpressure of the low pressure side, connecting piping and the effects upstream and downstream of the exchanger in the low pressure piping system where the tube failure occurred. This paper on our work was presented at the 3rd Hazards Asia Pacific Symposium in Kuala Lumpur in April 2015.

The Next Generation of Network Management and Leakage Systems
Glyn Addicott, Operations Director

The Hydraulic Analysis Group have taken their knowledge in surge analysis and pipeline transient operation to develop the next generation of water distribution network management and leakage systems by using real time data to create real time simulators.
This paper was presented at the 2016 South West AWWA Conference in Rogers, Arkansas in October 2016 and discusses water distribution network management and transient real time simulators which identify leaks, extend pipeline life expectancy and reduce the risk of bursts.

Use of Pressure Logging to Understand and Improve Rising Main Performance
Geoff Ball, Severn Trent Water
Andrew Warren, Atkins
Glyn Addicott, Hydraulic Analysis Ltd

This paper was presented at the CIWEM Urban Drainage Group Autumn Conference in November 2016 and reported on a pilot programme instigated by Severn Trent Water to understand and improve the performance of rising mains through real time pressure logging. The main purpose of the programme was to identify bursts as soon as they occur by continually monitoring and acting on the data through a pressure alarming system. This has allowed bespoke modifications to be made to key rising mains to stabilise their operation and reduce the burst frequency.

Practical design considerations for undulating sewage pumping mains;
Stephen Hunt; Former Engineering Director

This paper was presented at the 9th International Conference on Pressure Surges at Chester in March 2004. This provides designers with a definitive guide to undulating pipelines that have at least one drained section. The paper has been widely adopted in the UK with a number of the water companies including its recommendations within their design specifications.

The effects of air in a rising main;
Pat Dawson; Former Engineering Director

This paper was presented at the symposium “Pumping In Practice”, organised by the North Western District Centre and held at Runcorn in February 1980. Even though this paper was written and presented over 30 years ago, it is still accepted as a leading article that discusses the effects of air/water mixtures in pipelines as well as air transport mechanisms and bubble growth.

An introduction to Water Hammer;
David Clarke; Former Commercial Director

This was a series of articles published in the magazine ‘The Chemical Engineer’ between June 1988 and February 1989. The intention was to introduce the concepts of water hammer, how to avoid it and if necessary, how to suppress it. The articles were seen by many as the definitive layman’s guide to surge analysis.

Design Against Surge and Fatigue Conditions for Thermoplastic Pipes;
Water Industry Information & Guidance Note IGN 4-37-02; March 1999

When polyethylene pipelines were first introduced they were grouped together with other thermoplastic materials such as uPVC and ABS. This resulted in them being subjected to overly stringent surge and fatigue limits. At the request of a number of polyethylene pipeline manufacturers, Hydraulic Analysis Ltd chaired a panel of experts that looked at the true capabilities of these pipes. The rigorous analysis included extensive site investigations, desk-top studies and physical testing (to destruction) of specimens across the range of available thermoplastic pipes. As a result, the surge and fatigue capabilities of PE pipes were significantly up-rated and these were published in the IGN.

Whilst polyethylene pipes are now widely used in the water and waste water industries there was a protracted period in getting these pipes accepted.